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Learning to Leverage XML for Higher Ed Web CMS

The benefits of incorporating the use of XML/XSL in your web content management strategy are clear and compelling. XML technologies may no longer be considered bleeding-edge, or even leading-edge; nevertheless, there is good news.

The XML train has not yet left the station. Used well it can provide tremendous value. And you still have time to get on board.

In its simplest terms, XML is a way to structure data, and XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) — using a content script transformation language known as XSLT (XSL Transformation) — is the process used to select and format data. While XML, XSL and XSLT are used for data of all kinds, when it comes to your website, you can think of these terms as follows:

XML = content
XSL = layout and design (stylesheet)
XSLT = content transformation language

XML is an exciting technology precisely because it provides unparalleled flexibility. It provides a universal format for structuring and storing site content. XSL is important because it allows you to selectively use content and easily control your siteís format and display — the look and feel of your website.

While there are similarities between XML/XSL and HTML/CSS, the difference is in the transformational power of XSL, which allows complete control over content, design, format, even the file output type. Using XSLT you can filter, sort and process content and data prior to generating and outputting a file. The possibilities go far beyond those of HTML/CSS and extend to nearly any file type.

Itís also important to note that XML data can originate from files stored anywhere on the Web or your private network. For example, an XML file containing course or faculty information could be output by a database at the district level, allowing subsets to be displayed on web pages at each individual college or department.

Repurpose Content Using XML/XSL

Content repurposing is the practice of using XML/XSL to create content ďcomponentsĒ or chunks that can be easily reused and reformatted for different purposes.

For example, letís assume that we have XML content we would like to use for two very different output files. Since there is typically a one-to-one relationship between an XSL stylesheet and an output file, we would simply create two different XSL files that contain instructions to produce each unique output file — letís assume one is a web page, and the other a Comma Separated Values (CSV) file for use in a spreadsheet. When the XML content (referencing our two unique XSL files) is processed by the XSLT transformation engine (supplied by the web Content Management System), the resulting output is both an XHTML webpage and a CSV file containing the same content.

So, whatís the point?

A practical example of this might be a faculty contact guide, resulting in a web page nicely formatted with names, phone numbers and photographs of each staff member, and a CSV file that opens in a spreadsheet containing the same basic information but without all the formatting. If needed, an XSL stylesheet could be designed to output a PDF file, raw or transformed XML content, plain text or virtually any file type imaginable.

Course catalogs, event listings, and news and notices are other great uses of content repurposing to multiple file outputs. These are simple, yet powerful ways to use XML and XSL for content repurposing.

Tap into the Web of XML

More and more content is becoming available in XML formats every day. As part of an XML strategy its important to look to data sources beyond your institution.

Today, weíre seeing an explosion of XML content thatís available in the form of RSS news feeds, blogs and a wide variety of amazingly creative external (and publicly available) information sources. External, XML content is now readily available that goes far beyond news, weather and stock tickers.


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