W3C CSS Specification The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Working Group has published the Candidate Recommendation of “CSS Namespaces Module.” This module defines the syntax for using namespaces in CSS and may have wide spread implications in the design world. Since its inception CSS has been a top priority of the W3C and has been among the most popular topics. Namespaces have actually been in use in CSS for over 10 years now, but they have not been formally defined within the CSS specification by the W3C -- until now.

Namespace Defined

You are probably most familiar with the Namespaces in XML. They are used to identify or reference elements and attributes of an XML vocabulary. An XML instance may reference more than one XML vocabulary. Sometimes an element or attribute is used in several XML vocabularies. By referencing the element using its identified namespace, the software can understand which element is being used. In XML you create a Namespace using the xmlns attribute. In CSS, the same terminology is used as with XML namespaces. However you are not limited to just using namespaces to represent XML attributes and elements. Namespaces in CSS can be used to represent other items as defined by the Host Language being used. The @namespace rule allows the declaration of a namespace prefix to be used by selectors in a stylesheet. A namespace that consists of the empty string represents the null namespace or lack of a namespace.

Why Use a Namespace?

Some have chosen to know, use and love the @namespace syntax, while others have ignored it completely. The advantage of using a namespace, of course, is that it works in any non-XML-based ML without designing a new solution. The problem with namespaces is that it imposes technology on people not all software supports. Depending upon what language you use (CSS vs. XSL), your stylesheets will differ. After all, the W3C started to develop XSL because there was a need for an XML-based style sheet language. CSS or XSL? While CSS was designed around styling HTML and XML (including XHTML) documents and uses a special, non-XML syntax for defining the styling information for the various elements of the document that it styles, XSL has evolved from its initial design—to create an XML-based styling language directed towards paged display media—into the combination of XSLT and XSL-FO. This generic XML transformation language created a powerful styling language, much more complex than CSS. Whereas XSLT is a complete language, CSS is not; thus demonstrating a degree of power and flexibility not found in CSS.

Namespace Specifications

You can read the full Namespace specification on the W3C site, but here's the gist of it: * A namespace prefix is declared only within the stylesheet the @namespace attribute is created -- not within any stylesheet imported or importing this stylesheet. * The namespace prefix is case-sensitive * If a namespace is not declared, then it is considered the default namespace * A CSS qualified name is name associated with a namespace

Implications for Designers and Developers

Because the W3C encourages everybody to implement this specification, there will likely be some implications all of us web heads should be aware of. The most important question is what does this mean for designers and developers? Today, it's becoming increasingly important for organizations to follow standards outlined by standards bodies. Just look at what's happening with ODF and OOXML. Many organizations are also under strict rules to develop to WCAG accessibility standards. So designers and developers will be required to understand and develop to these new CSS specifications. While this is likely a good thing, what happens to older applications that are getting facelifts or major UI redesigns? How will these new standards affect this work? In addition, not all software will support this new specification right away. What does this mean for designers who want to implement the functionality and actually use it? Will their designs break in some software? Will they have to create more than one design or have to deal with annoying workarounds only to change them when the software finally does support the specification? We are curious as to what impact this might have on using XSL -- the other style language which is only used for XML. CSS can be used for both. So does this mean that maybe this specification might be evolving to completely replace xsl (at least for the W3C?) Are you a designer or developer who has looked at this new specification for CSS namespaces? Does it concern you? Let us know your thoughts.